The last section of the document outlines this system, whose claim is more plausible than equal justice, namely adequate access to justice. To realize this ideal, courts, law societies, legal aid providers and community organizations must work together to develop comprehensive and coordinated systems of legal service delivery. Within these systems, legal procedures and support structures should be designed to maximize the ability of individuals to deal with legal issues themselves without costly professional support. Those who need lawyers but cannot realistically afford them should have adequate opportunities to obtain competent services. This legal tone at the top of the Court is perceived differently by different people, sometimes as pretentious, often profound and sometimes empty.  According to law professor Jim Chen, it is common for people to “suggest that disagreement with a questionable bill would be tantamount to chiseling or dynamiting `Equal Justice Before the Law` from the portico of the Supreme Court.”  The term can be perceived in a variety of ways, but it does not very clearly say “equality of right before the law”, which would have meant that the judiciary can give precedence to justice over the law.  The extent of judicial tolerance is well illustrated by the jurisprudence that has evolved to determine the extent to which drowsiness is constitutionally permissible. As one federal district judge put it, “The Constitution states that everyone has the right to a lawyer of his or her own choosing. But the Constitution does not say that the lawyer must be awakened. xx Other courts agree, and some apply a detailed three-step analysis: did the defense attorney sleep repeatedly and for long periods of time, was the defense attorney really unconscious, and were the critical interests of the defense at stake while the defense attorney slept?xxi The courts were not only reluctant to overturn convictions for ineffective assistance of a lawyer, Nor were they willing to deal with the financial pressures and workload pressure that creates them. Challenges to the inadequacy of private lawyers` statutory fees and excessive assignments of court-appointed lawyers have rarely been successful.xxii Indeed, some judges, faced with an overwhelming number of cases on their own, have often been reluctant to promote effective advocacy, which would lead to longer court proceedings and pre-trial questions. Our demand for equal justice does not fit well with these financial realities, and we have failed to develop appropriate limiting principles, not only at the conceptual level, but also at the political and doctrinal levels. Let me say a word to each of them.
Judges must exercise considerable discretion in deciding which cases to hear, as approximately 7,000 to 8,000 civil and criminal cases are filed annually by the Supreme Court through the various state and federal courts. The Supreme Court also has “trial jurisdiction” in a very small number of cases arising from interstate or state-federal disputes. Mr. Gideon was forced to represent himself in court. He was sentenced to five years in prison. His appeals to the lower court were rejected, but his handwritten petition to the U.S. Supreme Court was heard. The court hired Washington, D.C., attorney Abe Fortas, who would later work on the Supreme Court bench, to represent Gideon in court. Whether the Sixth Amendment applied to defendants in state courts was challenged. The Court ruled unanimously that this was the case. “EQUAL JUSTICE BEFORE THE LAW” – These words, written above the main entrance of the Supreme Court building, express the ultimate responsibility of the U.S. Supreme Court.
The Court is the highest court in the land for all cases and controversies arising under the Constitution or laws of the United States. As the final arbiter of the law, the court`s task is to assure the American people of equal justice before the law, and thus also acts as the guardian and interpreter of the Constitution.